Pediatric Orphan Indications
Ganaxolone is currently being evaluated in an ongoing Phase 2 open-label exploratory study as a treatment for orphan, genetic epilepsies (PCDH19, CDKL5 & Lennox Gastaut Syndrome). Currently, there are no FDA approved therapies for these conditions.More information about the trial can be found on www.clinicaltrials.gov, using Identifier NCT02358538.
PCDH19 Pediatric Epilepsy
PCDH19 pediatric epilepsy is a serious and rare epileptic syndrome characterized by highly variable early-onset cluster seizures with comorbid cognitive and behavioral disturbances with or without intellectual disability. PCDH19 pediatric epilepsy is caused by a mutation in the PCDH19 gene. There is indirect evidence linking progesterone and allopregnanolone to the onset and offset of seizures in girls with PCDH19 pediatric epilepsy.
Clinical Development of Ganaxolone in PCDH19 Pediatric Epilepsy
We have completed the PCDH19 cohort in the study which enrolled 11 females. In this severe patient population, ganaxolone reduced seizure frequency from baseline in the majority of patients and was generally safe and well tolerated.
CDKL5 is a serious and rare genetic disorder that is caused by a mutation of the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene, located on the X chromosome. It predominantly affects girls and is characterized by early-onset, difficult-to-control seizures and severe neuro‑developmental impairment. The CDKL5 gene encodes proteins essential for normal brain function. Most children affected by CDKL5 cannot walk, talk, or care for themselves. Many also suffer from scoliosis, visual impairment, gastrointestinal difficulties, and sleeping disorders. Currently, there are no approved therapies for CDKL5 disorder. No previous formal clinical trials have been conducted in this population.
Clinical Development of Ganaxolone in CDKL5 Disorder
We recently reported positive preliminary data from the first four CDKL5 patients which showed that three of the four patients experienced a notable reduction in seizure frequency. One patient discontinued the study after four months of treatment due to lack of efficacy. Safety data to date are consistent with earlier studies where ganaxolone has shown to be generally safe and well-tolerated.
Lennox Gastaut Disorder (LGS)
LGS is a rare and often debilitating form of childhood-onset epilepsy. The syndrome is characterized by multiple seizure types, moderate to severe cognitive impairment, and an abnormal EEG with slow spike-wave complexes. LGS is also a physically dangerous epilepsy syndrome of childhood because of the frequent falls, injuries, and cognitive impairment that can severely limit quality of life.
Fragile X Syndrome
Photo Credit: Peter Saxon (CC BY-SA)
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a genetic condition, caused by a mutation in the fmr1 gene, and is characterized by the development of a range of developmental problems, including cognitive impairment, learning disabilities and behavioral challenges. Ganaxolone and other agents that have been shown to improve GABA function have also been shown to improve FXS symptoms in a mouse model. Ganaxolone may increase signaling at existing receptors to normalize GABA function, thereby reducing anxiety, hyperactivity and other disabilities associated with this inherited disorder.
Clinical Development of Ganaxolone in FXS
Ganaxolone was evaluated for the treatment of anxiety and attention in children with FXS in a Phase 2 exploratory clinical trial. Consistent with our expectations and ganaxolone’s mechanism of action, treatment with ganaxolone improved anxiety and hyperactivity across multiple measures in FXS patients with high baseline anxiety. In addition ganaxolone was generally safe and well tolerated. The results from this study support the anxiolytic effect of ganaxolone and provide a strong rationale to advance the clinical development of ganaxolone in anxious FXS patients.